Measurement uncertainty - Wikipedia
This is the second edition of a practical reference for scientists and engineers on how to estimate errors and uncertainty of measurements in both experimental research and industry. This new edition expands the coverage on indirect measurement and includes the most current research.
Measurement Errors and Uncertainties is a practical reference on theory and methods of estimating measurement errors and uncertainty for scientists and engineers in industry and experimental research. Building from the fundamentals of measurement theory, this book offers a wealth of practical recommenclations and procedures. It differs from the majority of books in that it balances coverage of probabilistic methods with detailed information on the characterization, calibration, standardization, and limitations of measuring instruments, with specific examples from both electrical and mechanical systems, making the book useful to both the theorist and experimenter.In addition to a general updating to include current research, new material in this second edition includes increased coverage of indirect measurements, with a new, simpler, and more efficient method for this class of measurements. Remarkably, this method eliminates the necessity of correlation coefficient.
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Basic Surveying - Theory and Practice For performing certain mathematical operations with angles, it is some-times easier to convert to decimal degrees first, perform the necessary math, then convert back to degrees, minutes, and seconds. D egrees-Minutes-Seconds D ecimal Degrees 1 0 2 3° 12' 1 8" 1 1 4 2.885° 1 2 6 3.545° 1 3 8 7° 58' 4 8"